Dating systems ce
An excellent example of Roman vaulting is the Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius in Rome.
Grandeur was Rome's goal, grandeur her one achievement, and perhaps also the secret of the shallowness of her art.Later there are the palaces, triumphal arches, and ceremonial gateways.It seems incredible that Etruscan capabilities (in architecture and other arts) - so advanced at the time of the rise of Rome - should have disappeared so quickly following the Roman takeover of Italy.The Romans relied heavily on the dome for much of their architecture, such as Hadrian's Pantheon, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla.Characteristic of Roman architectural design was the construction of complex forms of domes to suit multilobed ground plans.As soon as Rome takes on importance politically and culturally - that is, as soon as adjoining Etruria has been subjugated and Carthage successfully challenged - the spirit that dominates the arts is that of the conqueror and the celebrator.
Architecture, for instance, becomes dominated not by temples, but by the Forum or trading place, the basilica or public meeting-hall, the baths, the sports arenas, the theatres and circuses, many of which are constructed in colossal size, and lavishly ornamented.
It is far more influential than the various forms of Roman sculpture, most of which were derived from the Greeks.
Among the greatest buildings erected by the Romans, were: Maison Carree, Nimes, France (19 BCE); Pont Du Gard Aqueduct, Nimes, France (19 BCE); The Colosseum, Rome (72-80 CE); Arch of Titus, Rome (81 CE); Aqueduct, Segovia, Spain (100 CE); the Baths of Trajan (104-109); Trajan's Bridge, Alcantara, Spain (105 CE); Library of Celsus, Ephesus, Turkey (120 CE); Hadrian's Wall, Northern England (121 CE); The Pantheon, Rome (128 CE); Palace of Diocletian, Split (300 CE); Baths of Diocletian (306 CE); Arch of Constantine, Rome (312 CE); and the Cloaca Maxima (600-200 BCE), one of the world's earliest sewage systems, constructed in Ancient Rome in order to drain local marshes and transport the city's waste to the River Tiber.
The mastery by Roman architects and engineers of the arch, vault and dome - further enhanced by their development of concrete - helped them to solve the first problem of monumental architecture, which is to bridge space.
Roofing a great area means carrying heavy materials across spaces impossible to span with the Greeks' simple post-and-lintel system.
In addition, to further reinforce the ideals of the Pax Romana and, above all, maintain efficiency and order, Roman architects designed numerous aqueducts, drainage systems, and bridges, as well as a vast network of roads, while planners developed a series of urban blueprints, based on army camps, to help create new towns from scratch.